Decentralized Filtering and Redundancy Management for Multisensor Navigation

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1 January 1987

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Failure detection and redundancy management is discussed for avionics applications of integrated navigation involving coordinated use of multiple simultaneous sensor subsystems such as GPS, JTIDS, TACAN, VOR/DME, ILS, an inertial navigation system (INS), and possibly even Doppler AHRS. A brief high level survey is provided to assess the status of those techniques and methodologies advertized as already available for handling the challenging real-time failure detection, redundancy management, and Kalman filtering aspects of these systems with differing availabilities, differing reliabilities, differing accuracies, and differing information content/sampling rates. Following the status review, a new failure detection/redundancy management approach is developed based on voter/monitoring at both the raw data and at the filtered-data level, as well as using additional inputs from hardware built-in-testing (BIT) and from specialized tests for subsequent failure isolation in the case of ambiguous indications. The technique developed involves use of Gaussian confidence regions to reasonably account for the inherent differences in accuracy between the various sensor subsystems. Online estimates of covariances from the Kalman filter are to be used for this purpose (when available). A technique is provided for quantitatively evaluating both the probability of detecting failed component subsystems and the probability of false alarm to be incurred, which is then to be traded off as the basis for rational selection of the thresholds used in the automated decision process. Moreover, the redundancy management procedure is demonstrated to be amenable to pilot or navigation operator prompting and override, if necessary.